Sermorelin Acetate, also known as GRF 1-29, is a Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone
(GHRP) produced by the brain that stimulates the production and
release of Growth Hormone (GH). Sermorelin Acetate was first
developed in the 70s, which is thought to be the shortest fully
functional fragment of GHRH and has been used as a test for Growth
It is often used extensively in Anti-aging Therapy along with
Testosterone in men. Sermorelin Acetate affects a more primary
source of failure in the GH neuroendocrine axis, has more
physiological activity, and its use for adult hormone deficiency is
not restricted. Compared to human Growth Hormone (hGH), Sermorelin
Acetate is a growth hormone secretagogue, which means that it
stimulates the pituitary gland to produce and secrete growth
Also, Sermorelin Acetate and Modified GRF 1-29 contains 29 amino
acids whereas hGH is a larger molecule containing 191 amino acids.
Sermorelin (GRF 1-29)
Molecular formula: C149H246N44O42S
Molar Mass: 3357.96
CAS number: 86168-78-7
PubChem: CID 16133753
Synonyms: Sermorelin acetate hydrate, GRF 1-29 NH2
What is Sermorelin?
Sermorelin is a GHRH (growth hormone–releasing hormone) peptide
analogue. Its peptide sequence is comprised of 29 amino acids. This
sequence is a portion of the endogenous human GHRH, and is
currently considered to be the shortest synthetic peptide that
possesses the full array of functional GHRH activity. Due to this
fact, sermorelin is considered to be a growth hormone secretagogue.
Sermorelin has been used during research to stimulate the secretion
of growth hormone from the adenohypophysis (also called the
anterior pituitary). The anterior pituitary secretes trophic
hormones. Sermorelin has also been used in research stimulation
tests to assess for pituitary sufficiency in relation to the
secretion of the growth hormone.
Growth hormone–releasing hormone
GHRH is 44 amino-acids polypeptide that stimulates the secretion of
growth hormone from the adenohypophysis. It is also called
somatocrinin or somatoliberin. It is produced in the cell bodies of
periventricular arcuate neurons, and thereafter transported to the
neurosecretory terminals of the neurons where they are released.
The arcuate neurons do form part of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal
portal system. Their release from the neurosecretory terminals
occur in a pulsatile fashion and it thus follows that growth
hormone (GH) release also occurs in a corresponding pulsatile
fashion. GHRH binds to a secretin-type G-protein coupled serpentine
receptor called the GHRH-receptor (GHRHR).
Binding causes the receptor to activate both the cAMP (cyclic
Adenosine Monophosphate)-dependent pathway and the phospholipase C
(PLC) pathway. The terminal downstream actions of the
cAMP-dependent pathway do upregulate the transcription of both the
GH and GHRHR genes thereby providing a positive feedback loop that
amplifies the production of GH. The GH produced is thereafter
packaged in secretory vesicles. The downstream actions of the PLC
pathway results in both Na+-voltage-dependent and Ca2+-dependent fusion of the secretory vesicles with the plasma
membrane thereby releasing GH into the bloodstream.
The actions of GH ensure an optimal well-regulated post-natal
growth. GH also promotes efficient energy metabolism. Studies have
also shown that GHRH directly promotes slow wave NREM (non-rapid
eye movement) sleep, and thus GHRH insufficiency causes a reduction
in the amount and intensity of slow wave NREM sleep which results
in either insomnia or dysomnia (sleep disorders that causes sleep
to lose its restorative capacity). Studies have also shown that
GHRH inhibits the actions of somatostatin.
Somatostatin is a polypeptide hormone that inhibits GH secretion
from the adenohypophysis. Both GHRH and somatostatin are produced
in the same neuron but they are released in alternation to each
other thereby resulting in the pulsatile release of GH from the
Recent research has also shown that GHRH is also produced outside
the hypothalamus by pancreatic cells, gastrointestinal tract
epithelial cells and in some neoplastic cells. Clinical studies
have also shown that the actions of Sermorelin are similar to the
GHRH actions. Thus, Sermorelin has been used to diagnose
deficiencies in GH secretions. Also, Sermorelin has been
investigated for its therapeutic properties as the studies
discussed below show.
The two studies reviewed hereafter have provided adequate and
conclusive findings that sermorelin can be used clinically to
promote growth and manage GHRH deficiency.
1. Sermorelin and growth hormone (GH) deficiency.
In 1999, a study entitled “Sermorelin: a review of its use in the
diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic growth hormone
deficiency” was authored by Aitabh Prakash and Karen Goa and
published in the journal Biodrugs.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether sermorelin
injection stimulates GH secretion from the adenohypophysis. The
subjects of this study included adults and pre-pubertal children
(both normal and those suffering from GH deficiency). The subjects
were randomly divided into two groups with one group receiving
intravenous sermorelin injection and the other group receiving
subcutaneous sermorelin injection.
The results obtained from both groups showed that Sermorelin was
able to rapidly diagnose GH insufficiency in children affected by
GH deficiency (p < 0.05). The p<0.05 is a measure of
statistical significance, and the value 0.05 shows that the results
are statistically significant. However, the diagnosis could only
isolate GH insufficiency caused by GHRH deficiency.
The results also revealed that subcutaneous sermorelin injection
did cause a significant increase in height in children suffering
from idiopathic GH deficiency, and that this acceleration in growth
rate could be maintained consistently for 36 months. Likewise, the
results also revealed that both Sermorelin administrations were
well tolerated with the only observable adverse effects being
injection-site pain and transient facial flushing.
In summary, the findings of this study show that sermorelin
stimulates GH secretion from the adenohypophysis. Also, intravenous
sermorelin can be used to diagnose some cases of GH deficiency, and
subcutaneous sermorelin can be used to manage GH insufficiency.
2. Sermolelin and growth acceleration in a chronic disease state.
In 1996, Pasqualini et al conducted a study that was published
under the title “Growth acceleration in children with chronic renal
failure treated with growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)” in
the journal Medicina. The subjects involved in this study were 9
children aged between 1 to 14 years old. They all suffered from
chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this study was to
investigate whether subcutaneous Sermorelin causes growth increase
in children ailing from CRF.
The subjects were categorized into 3 groups, the first group
comprised of 3 children on conservative management, the second
group comprised of 3 children on dialysis and the last group
comprised 3 children who had undergone renal transplantation. Each
of the three groups was administered with subcutaneous Sermorelin
acetate (Geref ®) for a period of 3-6 months.
The results showed that the mean serum creatinine and urea levels
remained stable in all the subjects except for two children on
conservative management who showed an increase in their serum
creatinine levels. The results also revealed that the rate of
height increase in 5 of the subjects (3 on conservative management,
one on dialysis and the other had undergone transplantation)
averaged about 4.2cm/year (p < 0.05).
Also, Geref® caused a higher peak in GH response among growth
non-responders as compared to the growth responders (p < 0.05).
The results obtained in this study do show that non-responders
suffered from GH-resistance as demonstrated by the fact that they
had high levels of GH but their growth was still stunted.
In summary, the findings of this study show that sermorelin does
increase the rate of growth in GH-responsive CRF children, though
it has no appreciable effect on the course of the CRF.
In conclusion, the above two studies show that Sermorelin can be
used in research to diagnose cases of GH deficiency, stimulates GH
secretion from the adenohypophysis, manage GH insufficiency and
increase the rate of growth in GH-responsive CRF children.
3. The Sermorelin Acetate Peptide and HGH
Sermorelin Acetate, which shares similar structure to CJC-1295, is
a bio-identical synthetic hormone that is extremely effective in
increasing the amount of HGH. Human Growth Hormone is a hormone
released by the body that controls the reproduction and growth of
the cells and each of the organs in the body.
At a young age, the body's HGH production is most active while the
growth rate is at its highest point. After the age of 30, for every
decade of life, there is a 14% reduction in HGH production . By the
age of 40, HGH production is about 40 percent of what it was at the
age of 20. With the further development of Growth Hormone Releasing
Factors (GHRF), such as Modified GRF 1-29, HGH production may possibly begin again by stimulating the
4. Sermorelin Acetate and Related Research
Since 1980, scientists have been studying GHRH for many years. Dr.
D. Rudman was testing Sermorelin as a tool for anti-aging processes
and Dr. William Wehrenberg was looking at different peptides and
particularly GHRH to identify which part of it is needed for
pituitary gland stimulating response.
His results after eliminating single amino acids showed that
29-acid-chains were held responsible for pituitary stimulation.
Many research studies have concluded that Sermorelin is a well
tolerated analogue of GHRH. As a result, this is suitable for use
as a provocative test of growth hormone deficiency (Prakash and Goa
1999). In 1999, both researchers, Goa and Prakash checked
Sermorelin Growth Hormone as provocative tasting method for
deficiency of endogenous G-hormone.
Sermorelin therapy increased the volume of hormone secreted by the
stimulated pituitary gland, which is later converted by the liver
into IGF-1. The increased amount of IGF-1 in the blood stream leads
to many benefits from the use of Sermorelin: increasing metabolism
and growth of new cells within the body’s organs and bones.
Sermorelin acetate is a recently synthesized (man-made) peptide analogue of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) a naturally occurring hormone that is
produced in the hypothalamus and stimulates and controls the
production of growth hormone (GH) within the pituitary gland. GHRH,
which is necessary for growth and development, was first described
by Nobel Laureates R. Guilleman and A Shalley. In the 1970s one of
their students, William Wehrenberg, began studying which part of
the GHRH molecule was essential in stimulating the pituitary gland.
SERMORELIN FUNCTION AND TRAITS
By removing individual amino acids from the GHRH molecule,
Wehrenberg found that only the first 29 amino acids were essential
for the stimulation of GH production in the pituitary gland.
Semorelin is therefore only comprised of these 29 essential amino
acids, forming a short polypeptide chain that is considered one of
the shortest functional fragments of the GHRH molecule. It was
first developed with a one-step chromatographic method capable of
separating all isomers of polyethylene glycol (PEG) from naturally
The biological effects of sermorelin were first observed in vitro
cultures of rat pituitary cells. When compared to other GHRH
analogues, sermorelin was found to be the most potent, potentially
4-5 times as potent as naturally produced GHRH. Recent studies of
other GHRH analogues in pigs have also found synthetic GHRH
analogues to be more effective than the naturally occurring
Sermorelin is now used as a standard test for growth hormone
secretion and is primarily prescribed for children who do not
produce GH properly and fail to grow healthily as a result. It has
a secondary, off-label use in “repairing” declining GH levels (a
natural side effect of aging that leads to weight gain, decreased
strength and muscle mass, and insomnia in elder subjects). GH
levels typically peak at around 20 years of age in humans and fall
by about 14% for every decade that passes, but use of Sermorelin
can potentially rejuvenate GH back to youthful levels.
EFFECTS OF SEMORELIN
Sermorelin has a wide range of positive effects. Due to its nature
as a GHRH, sermorelin only increases the body’s ability to produce
more growth hormone; it is not an injection of growth hormone
itself. In both a performance enhancing and general well-being
sense, sermorelin has a wide array of benefits that make it a
powerful and valuable substance.
1. Mental: Focus and mental clarity improve, leading to an easing of general
day-to-day tasks. Libido can be heightened and users have reported
an improvement in their sex lives. General fatigue as well
depression can also be reduced. All of these qualities can lead to
a generally healthier, happier lifestyle.
2. Physical: Sermorelin increases the development of lean body mass through
the development of new muscle cells and reduces body fat through
lipolysis. This leads to increased strength and endurance and
improved muscle tone as well as improved skin elasticity (smoother,
less wrinkly skin) and loss of cellulite. Calcium retention
improves, leading to the increased mineralization of bone (bone
density), strengthening the skeletal system.
3. General enhancement: Protein synthesis increases, leading to the stimulation of all
internal organs (including the heart) except for the brain.
Cholesterol levels fall. Regardless of the purpose of use, joint
and muscle pain is lessened, one’s recovery time from wounds
increases, and the immune system improves. The individual will not
tire as quickly and will be able to go longer in their daily
activities, be those exercise related or other. Deeper, more
restful and satisfying sleep can be expected (some have reported
more vivid dreams) and hair can becomes thicker, fuller, and more
SIDE EFFECTS OF SEMORELIN
There are a significant number of potential side effects that come
with the use of sermorelin, although in the vast majority of cases
the side effects, if present at all, are relatively mild. While
side effects are certainly possible and semorelin is not risk-free,
for a healthy adult these risk can be minimized and many will find
no negative side effects at all.
1. Common side effects: The most common side effects (about 17% of total cases) include
pain, swelling, and/or redness at the injection site. These side
effects usually do not require medical attention. Less common are
itching and trouble swallowing. As with any peptide, allergic
reactions can occur. Many patients develop antibodies to growth
hormone–releasing hormone at least once during treatment with
sermorelin. However, the significance of these antibodies is not
Their presence does not appear to affect growth, nor do they cause
specific side effects. In less than 1% of cases, dizziness,
flushing, headache, hyperactivity, or sleepiness have been
reported. The use of semorelin could also potentially lead to
reduced risk of hypertension, stroke/aneurysm/heart attack, heart
and kidney failure, and vision changes or loss, however none of
these conditions have been conclusively linked to its use.
2. Medical risk: Studies in rats, rabbits, and pigs have shown there to be an
adverse effect upon the fetuses of pregnant females. There have
been no studies at all regarding this product and its risks in
human females who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant and it
is currently unknown whether sermorelin is released in mammalian
Using alcohol, tobacco or other medications (especially
corticosteroids and glucocorticoid) with certain products may cause
certain unwanted interactions to occur. Speak to your healthcare
professional about other medicines you take and your lifestyle
choices before starting to use this substance.
The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this
product, so always check with your doctor beforehand, especially if
you suffer from an under/hyperactive thyroid. Long-term studies to
determine if sermorelin has any carcinogenic properties in either
humans or animals have not been conducted, but neither have any
reports of cancer caused by semorelin been reported.
Sermorelin is prescribed as a fine white powder of a variable dose
(in milligrams) in a vial that must be mixed with bacteriostatic
water or medical grade saline solution as a diluent. The powder
should be stored out of light at or below room temperature. The
solution is used by injection into subcutaneous (below the skin)
body fat using a very small needle, comparable to what a diabetic
would use to take their insulin shots.
Once combined into solution form, sermorelin must be kept in the
refrigerator (do not freeze—store between 2 and 8°C/36 and 46°F) )
and out of light or else the chain of amino acids will break down
and it will be rendered ineffective. Before use, check the liquid
for particles or discoloration and, if found, discard the solution.
As with most peptides, there is a saturation dose at which point
taking any more of the peptide will not increase the production of
growth hormone, a consequence of the body’s natural mechanism to
keep hormonal levels at a safe homeostasis. This saturation dose is
typically around 100mcg.
It is best to use a different place on the body for each injection
(for example, abdomen, hip, thigh, or upper arm). The dose of this
medicine will be different for different patients based off of
their body-mass index (BMI); use it exactly as directed by your
doctor and do not use it more often than your doctor prescribed.
Sermorelin has an ongoing effect in which optimal HGH levels can be sustained long after the last injection. Just like
synthetic GH, sermorelin initially must be injected every day.
Unlike synthetic HGH, once optimal levels reached, injection
frequency can be decreased or stopped altogether
AVAILABILITY AND PURCHASE OF SERMORELIN
Products containing sermorelin acetate was pulled from the US
market (under the brand name ‘Geref’) in November, 2002. Sermorelin is also not commercially available
in Canada. Thus, one cannot buy sermorelin over-the-counter in
North America. However, sermorelin can legally be prescribed by a
doctor for “off label” use at home in the United States.
As with all products related to steroids and growth hormone, sermorelin can be found for purchase on the black market and the internet, even in geographic locations where its sale is
prohibited by local, state, and federal law. While some of these
sellers may be selling products of repute, the trustworthiness of
products sold over the internet or black market cannot ever be
verified in advance. Always remember that there are plenty of
mislabeled or outright fake products sold on the internet/black
market that are marketed as certain other products and substances.
Potential users should always consult with their medical
professional and check the relevant laws of their home
country/state before buying semorelin. Buying semorelin should not
be a quick decision, but one made after some careful cost-benefit
analysis of the effects and the consultation of professionals.
Remember that purchasing semorelin online in the United States is
still a crime, and that it can only be taken in the USA with a
prescription written by your doctor.
There are currently no clinical trials being undertaken with
sermorelin in the United States and consequently the jury is still
out on its overall effectiveness when compared to its potential
downsides, but very clearly it is a very powerful substance that
has great potential for human general health and wellbeing, both
mentally and physically. The key to getting the best results from
the use of semorelin is understanding how GHRH affects the
production of growth hormone in the body, which we have outlined
Many assume that the use of such products is solely for the purpose
of bodybuilding or gaining an unfair advantage in sports and competition, but
sermorelin can be used as a general product to promote one’s mental
and physical health and wellbeing and to counter the inevitable
effects of aging. If any of these are your goals, then sermorelin
is an outstanding substance for you.